《供应链之死The Death of Supply Chain Management》哈佛商业评论原文

TheDeathofSupplyChainManagement

byAllanLyall,PierreMercierandStefanGstettner@HarvardBusinessReview

Thesupplychainistheheartofacompany’soperations.Tomakethebestdecisions,managersneedaccesstoreal-timedataabouttheirsupplychain,butthelimitationsoflegacytechnologiescanthwartthegoalofend-to-endtransparency.However,thosedaysmaysoonbebehindus.Newdigitaltechnologiesthathavethepotentialtotakeoversupplychainmanagemententirelyaredisruptingtraditionalwaysofworking.Within5-10years,thesupplychainfunctionmaybeobsolete,replacedbyasmoothlyrunning,self-regulatingutilitythatoptimallymanagesend-to-endworkflowsandrequiresverylittlehumanintervention.

Withadigitalfoundationinplace,companiescancapture,analyze,integrate,easilyaccess,andinterprethighquality,real-timedata—datathatfuelsprocessautomation,predictiveanalytics,artificialintelligence,androbotics,thetechnologiesthatwillsoontakeoversupplychainmanagement.

Leadingcompaniesarealreadyexploringthepossibilities.Manyhaveusedroboticsorartificialintelligencetodigitizeandautomatelabor-intensive,repetitivetasksandprocessessuchaspurchasing,invoicing,accountspayable,andpartsofcustomerservice.Predictiveanalyticsarehelpingcompaniesimprovedemandforecasting,sotheycanreduceorbettermanagevolatility,increaseassetutilization,andprovidecustomerconvenienceatoptimizedcost.

Sensordataonmachineuseandmaintenancearehelpingsomemanufacturerstobetterestimatewhenmachineswillbreakdown,sodowntimeisminimized.Blockchainsarebeginningtorevolutionizehowpartiescollaborateinflexiblesupplynetworks.Robotsareimprovingproductivityandmarginsinretailwarehousesandfulfillmentcenters.Deliverydronesandself-drivingvehiclesaren’tfaroff.RioTinto,theglobalmining-and-metalscompany,isexploringhowdigitaltechnologiescanautomatemine-to-portoperations.Usingdriverlesstrains,roboticoperators,cameras,lasers,andtrackingsensors,thecompanywillbeabletomanagethewholesupplychainremotely—whileimprovingsafetyandreducingtheneedforworkersinremotelocations.

Akeyconceptthatmanyofthesecompaniesareexploringisthe“digitalcontroltower”—avirtualdecisioncenterthatprovidesreal-time,end-to-endvisibilityintoglobalsupplychains.Forasmallnumberofleadingretailcompanies’controltowershavebecomethenervecenteroftheiroperations.Atypical“tower”isactuallyaphysicalroomstaffedwithateamofdataanalyststhatworksfull-time,24/7,monitoringawallofhighdefinitionscreens.Thescreensprovidereal-timeinformationand3Dgraphicsoneverystepofthesupplychain,fromordertodelivery.Visualalertswarnofinventoryshortfallsorprocessbottlenecksbeforetheyhappen,sothatteamsonthefrontlinecancoursecorrectquicklybeforepotentialproblemsbecomeactualones.Real-timedata,unquestionedaccuracy,relentlesscustomerfocus,processexcellence,andanalyticalleadershipunderliethecontroltoweroperationsoftheseretailoperations.

Industrialcompaniesarealsoembracingtheconcept.Onemanufacturer’scomplexnetworkmovesmorethanamillionpartsandcomponentsperday.Thecontroltowerflagspotentialsupplyissuesastheyarise,calculatestheeffectsoftheproblem,andeitherautomaticallycorrectstheissueusingpre-determinedactionsorflagsitfortheescalationteam.Similarly,asteelcompanybuiltacustomizedscenario-planningtoolintoitscontroltowerplatformthatincreasessupplychainresponsivenessandresilience.Thetoolsimulateshowmajor,unexpectedequipmentbreakdowns—socalled“bighits”—willaffectthebusinessandpointstothebestriskmitigationactions.

Reskillingimplications

Thetrendisclear:Technologyisreplacingpeopleinsupplychainmanagement—anddoingabetterjob.It’snothardtoimagineafutureinwhichautomatedprocesses,datagovernance,advancedanalytics,sensors,robotics,artificialintelligence,andacontinuallearningloopwillminimizetheneedforhumans.Butwhenplanning,purchasing,manufacturing,orderfulfillment,andlogisticsarelargelyautomated,what’sleftforsupplychainprofessionals?

Intheshortterm,supplychainexecutiveswillneedtoshifttheirfocusfrommanagingpeopledoingmostlyrepetitiveandtransactionaltasks,todesigningandmanaginginformationandmaterialflowswithalimitedsetofhighlyspecializedworkers.Inthenearterm,supplychainanalystswhocananalyzedata,structureandvalidatedatasets,usedigitaltoolsandalgorithms,andforecasteffectivelywillbeinhighdemand.

Lookingfurtherout,ahandfulofspecialistswillbeneededtodesignatechnology-drivensupplychainenginethatseamlesslysupportstheever-changingstrategy,requirements,andprioritiesofthebusiness.Tokeepthatenginerunning,asmallnumberofpeoplemustberecruitedortrainedinnewskillsattheintersectionofoperationsandtechnology.Sincetheskillsneededforthesenewrolesarenotreadilyavailabletoday,thebiggestchallengeforcompanieswillbetocreateasupplychainvisionforthefuture—andastrategyforfillingthosecriticalroles.

Clearly,thedeathofsupplychainmanagementasweknowitisonthehorizon.Themanagersandcompaniesworkingtoupdatetheirskillsandprocessestodayaretheoneswhowillcomeoutontop.

AllanLyallisasupplychainandretailexpert.HewasAmazon’sVPofEuropeanoperationsforover12years,andhasheldotherexecutiverolesatAppleandTesco.

PierreMercierisaseniorpartnerandmanagingdirectoratTheBostonConsultingGroup(BCG).Hespecializesinsupplychainmanagementandtheretailindustry.PriortojoiningBCGheworkedatMitchellMadisonGroupandDeloitteConsulting.

StefanGstettnerisanassociatedirectoratTheBostonConsultingGroup.HespentsixyearsastheCOOofaconsumergoodsretailerandranasupplychainexpertnetwork.Hiscurrentareaoffocusisdigitalsupplychaintransformation.

Source:https://hbr.org/2018/06/the-death-of-supply-chain-management

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